Červen 2011


8. června 2011 v 23:02 | Špaky
With this report, the Global Entrepreneurship
Monitor (GEM) has completed 12 annual surveys of
the entrepreneurial attitudes, activities and aspirations
of individuals around the world. Starting with
just 10 developed countries in 1999, GEM has grown
to include over 80 economies during the course of
these 12 years. In 2010, over 175,000 people were
surveyed in 59 economies. These 59 economies represent
not only the largest sample yet, but also the
most geographically and economically diverse group
surveyed. Together, this group covers over 52% of the
world's population and 84% of the world's GDPi.
The 2010 survey shows that, in the economies analyzed,
some 110 million people between 18 and 64 years
old were actively engaged in starting a business. Another
140 million were running new businesses they started
less than 3½ years earlier. Taken together, some 250
million were involved in what GEM defines as earlystage
entrepreneurial activity. Out of these individuals,
an estimated 63 million people expected to hire at least
five employees over the next five years, and 27 million
of these individuals anticipated hiring twenty or more
employees in five years. This illustrates the contribution
of entrepreneurship to job growth across the globe.
GEM takes a comprehensive snapshot of entrepreneurs
around the world, measuring the attitudes
of a population and the activities and characteristics
of individuals participating in various phases of
entrepreneurship. Also revealed are the aspirations
these entrepreneurs hold for their businesses, along
Executive Summary
with other key features of their ventures. This effort
is accomplished through the collaborative work of
a consortium of national teams consisting of academic
researchers from across the globe. Each GEM
national team oversees an annual survey of at least
2,000 adults. In addition, they consult with national
experts on factors that can explain the nature and
level of entrepreneurship in their economies.
GEM groups the participating economies into
three levels: factor-driven, efficiency-driven, and innovation-
driven. These are based on the World Economic
Forum's (WEF) Global Competitiveness Report ii, which
identifies three phases of economic development
based on GDP per capita and the share of exports
comprising primary goods.
According to the WEF classification, the factor-
driven phase is dominated by subsistence agriculture
and extraction businesses, with a heavy
reliance on labor and natural resources. In the
efficiency-driven phase, further development is accompanied
by industrialization and an increased
reliance on economies of scale, with capital-intensive
large organizations more dominant. As development
advances into the innovation-driven phase,
businesses are more knowledge intensive, and the
service sector expands.
GEM additionally considers geographic factors,
grouping countries into six geographic regions: Sub-
Saharan Africa, the Middle East and North Africa